In order to solve the problem that the hole-forming rate of boreholes is low and it is difficult to reach the designed length when supporting a long pipe shed in loose stratum in a shallow buried section of a long-span tunnel, it is necessary to pre-reinforce the loose stratum in order to improve the strength and integrity of the surrounding rock. Relying on the grouting project of the shallow buried section at the exit of Botanggou tunnel, it is assumed that the grouting material is Newtonian fluid and the steel floral tube shows cylindrical infiltration and diffusion. Through the analysis of the structural characteristics of the injected stratum, the conceptual model of infiltration grouting is established. Twelve groups of test slurry were prepared with ordinary Portland cement and ultra-fine cement, and through the analysis of the slurry parameters of each group, ordinary Portland cement slurry was selected with a water–cement ratio of 1:1 plus 3% water glass to strengthen the gravel layer, and ultra-fine cement slurry with a water–cement ratio of 1:1 plus 3% water glass and 0.3% polycarboxylate superplasticizer to strengthen the fully and strongly weathered porphyritic granite layer. Through the on-site single-hole grouting test and combining with the empirical formula, the maximum diffusion radius of single-hole infiltration grouting is calculated, and the sliding width of the sidewall is deduced using Terzaghi theory. To ensure the grouting effect, the 5 m expansion of the excavation profile is taken as the grouting range. Grouting construction adopts the overall order of periphery and then interior, and three-sequence opening and grouting are adopted in the same row of grouting holes, which can effectively prevent grouting running and grouting. For the strata treated by surface grouting, the construction of the long pipe shed is smooth and reaches the designed length, and there is no large deformation of the surrounding rock when excavated using the CD method. The treatment effect is analyzed by the P-Q-t control method, excavation observation method, and deformation monitoring method. The results show that the injected stratum is fully infiltrated and gelled, forms an obvious grouting stone body, the integrity and strength of surrounding rock are obviously improved, and the convergence values of the tunnel surface, vault subsidence, and clearance do not exceed the alarm value of 60 mm. The research results provide some awareness and understanding of the grouting pre-reinforcement of loose stratum in a shallow buried section of a long-span tunnel in the future.
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/Journal of Wuhan University of Technology (Transportation Science and Engineering)